About TrIP-Sen and Tech blog


Trip-Sen is a fabless semiconductor company focusing on telehealth and other healthcare applications, and developping modular, reconfigurable and cognitive Integrated Circuits (IC).

On the construction of electrostatic-driven MEMS speaker using volume instead of surface to generate sound more efficiently and in a more compact fashion but with a bit of trade-off between SPL and THD.

From Fraunhofer Institute
#coulomb #electrostatic #MEMS #transducer #actuator #THD #harmonics #SPL #CMOS #SOI #siliconOnInsultor #TWS #hearable #hearingAid #trueWirelessSpeaker #instantTranslation #semiconductor #microelectronics









Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

3-phase Vienna rectifier for Electric Vehicles (EV) OBC (On-Board-Charger) with a space vector control done in the DQ reference, similar in a way to the FOC (Field-Oriented-Control) approach used with BLDC/PMSM motors. Seems to be lacking though for the inner control loop the mixing of the reference current Id* with input voltage for active PFC but probably a figure typo.

From Univ. of Casablanca
#viennaRectifier #rectifier #powerfactorcorrection #ccm #EV #electricvehicles #OBC #charger #SiC #siliconCarbide #igbt #powerManagement #xEV #THD #parkTransform #fieldOritentelControl #SVM #spaceVector #pwm #bldc #pmsm #power #powerSemiconductors #semiconductor #microelectronics


Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

Trench LDMOS achieving a lower RDSon, through increased channel density by conducting channel current laterally along the sidewall of a trench gate oriented orthogonal to current flow. Possibility to have a deeper n+ source to further improve current uniformity along the trench.

#powerManagement #BCD #MOSFET #LDMOS #power #semiconductor #microelectronics




Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

Nice application note about LLC resonant half-bridge converter with soft-switching capabilities at turn-on on both primary and secondary side (ZVS/ZCS) through the magnetizing current developed within the transformer. Resonant current dropping at magnetizing current at/before/after the phase node voltage switches depending on the operating frequency (resistive/capacitive/inductive mode).

From OnSemi AND9408-D
#powermanagement #powerconverter #powerapps #halfbridge #LLC #softswitching #ZVS #ZCS #semiconductor #microelectronics


Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

SSB (Single-Side-Band) back-scattering modulation from Bluetooth Low Energy (during payload of ADV channels) to Wi-Fi as well as support for back-communication channel by transforming the iFFT engine of the reader device into an AM modulator.
From Univ of Washington

#Bluetooth #Wifi #80211 #80215 #backscattering #wireless #energyHarvesting #semiconductor #microelectronics #batteryless #powermanagement









Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

USPTO Patent Office: The transfer methods of wireless power to non-self-powered biometric authentication devices of the invention are particularly well-suited for self-enrollment of one user's identity on biometric smart cards but can also be applied for subsequent data exchange such as peer-to-peer money transfer.




#biometric #biometrics #smartcard #biometricsecurity #fingerprint #fps #fingerprintsensor #sensor #authentication #microelectronics #semiconductor #wirelesspower #wirelesscharging #wireless #enrollment #fintech #identification #identity #identityverification #security #banking


Pierre Gandolfo, 2022

Individual Quantum Dot (QD) addressing with tunneling from electron reservoir before confinement, microwave-manipulation and spin-state reading through adjacent SET.


From Univ New South Wales, Univ Twente and Univ Kieo
#qubit #SiliconQubit #ESR #SpinResonance #Zeeman #QuantumDot #microelectronics #semiconductor #SETtransistor


Double QD (Quantum Dot) encoded in the hole-spin (instead of the typical electron), implemented on a FD-SOI (Fully-depleted Silicon On Insulator) but manipulated by means of microwave excitation so no full-electrical control for easy addressing and no fast single-shot read-out technique yet (e.g. RF gate reflectometry).
From Univ Grenoble, CEA-Inac and CEA-Leti
Modeling of Rabi frequency for hole spin manipulation with multiple conditions for oscillation and dependencies: significant heavy- and light-hole mixing, static electrical field for mixing of odd and even envelope, magnetic interaction between the majority component of one pseudo-spin and the minority component of the other, box and magnetic field orientation, choice of box material…
From CEA-Leti, IRIG and Univ. Grenoble (Yann-Michel Niquet and Benjamin Venitucci)

Interesting set of benefits for neutral atoms interacting in a Rydberg state: entanglement with high connectivity (in 2D and 3D), flexibility with manipulation at both digital/individual and analog/whole/Hamiltonian level, scalability through more optical tweezers and reproducibility…

#rydberg #rydbergBlockade #vanderWalls #entanglement #semiconductor #microelectronics #pasqal #hamiltonian


Electro-Optical PLL with MZI Interferometer for the generation of frequency-swept signal for FMCW LiDaR systems.
From University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering
 #lidar #FMCW #VCSEL #radar #adas #PLL #autonomousCar #Microelectronics #semiconductor


Electrical spin manipulation (electron or hole) wih possibility to render the Rabi frequency minimal when static magnetic field is aligned with spin-orbit coupling.

#qubit #SiliconQubit #RabiFrequency #Hamiltonian #SiliconOnInsulator #EDSR #SpinResonance #ValenceBand #Zeeman #QuantumDot #Quantum #microelectronics #semiconductor

Waveform bandwidth compression for not only higher spectral efficiency but also lower transmit power (for a given range) through orthonormal Cairns series/exponential function projections and instantaneous frequency-bin summation.

#Cairns #spectrumEfficiency #OFDM #FFT #Fourier #Microelectronics #semiconductor #wireless #InstaneousSpectral


Pierre Gandolfo, 2021



Kitaev phase estimation algorithm with Bayesian subroutine to avoid periodicity ambiguity (over large sensing range) while achieving high accuracy within a small number of convergence K steps.

#Kitaev #Bayes #PhaseEstimation


Pierre Gandolfo, 2021


Particles separation through DLD – Deterministic Lateral Displacement - for point of care analysis.

From Univ of Grenoble and CEA-Leti
#microfluidic #pointOfCare #bloodSampleAnalysis #microelectronics #semiconductors #nanotechnologies #CEA #Leti


Pierre Gandolfo, 2021






Implementation of a resonantly-driven CNOT gate with two different ESR resonances depending on the state of the adjacent control qubit. Frequency separation being controlled through J-coupling adjustment by the middle gate.

From Princeton Univ, Konstanz Univ, Maryland Univ and Tokyo Univ.

#qubit #SiliconQubit #SiliconOnInsulator #soitec #RabiFrequency #ESR #SpinResonance #Zeeman #QuantumDot #CNOT #microelectronics #semiconductor


Pierre Gandolfo, 2021



Interesting joint use of CNN and TCN (Temporal Convolutional Neural Network) with Pulsed Radar for robust hand-gesture recognition on edge AI devices with tight memory footprint and power constraints (<100kB and ~120mW).

From ETH Zürich and University of Bologna
#CNN #TCN #edgeAI #radar #mmWave #UWB #impulseRadio #microelectronics #semiconductor

Nanoparticles patterning/microfluidics manipulation (e.g. bacteria, proteins biomarkers for blood sample analysis) though primarily acoustic radiating force in a confined evanescent Bessel beam. Opto-mechanical nano-resonator could then be used for single-particle mass-spectrometry.

From Univ of Grenoble and CEA-Leti
#microfluidics #massSpectrometry #proteomics #pointOfCare #peptide #bloodSampleAnalysis #ultrasouund #Bessel #BesselBeam #nanoresonator #piezoelectric #microelectronics #semiconductors #nanotechnologies #MEMS #CEA #Leti #biologicalAnalysis


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020




Fourier-transform spectrometer-on-chip in SOI (MZI interferometer) made of waveguides of varying lengths for OPL (Optical Path Length) modulation and combined with compressive-sensing spectrum reconstruction technique (for both narrow/sparse and broad/smooth spectral features retrieval); and as such not suffering from the typical trade-off between spectral resolution and SNR while being scalable through the use of a single photodetector.
Same spectrum reconstructions techniques could be further applied to other types of spectrometer-on-chip (e.g. Michelson and Fabry-Perrot interferometers with moveable MEMS micro-mirror as well as organic photodiodes array with small # of pixels)

From Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
#spectrometer #spectroscopy #NearInfrared #MachZehnder #Michelson #FabryPerrot #Interferometer #CompressiveSensing #RegularizedRegression #photodiode #RayleighCriterion #SiliconOnInsulator #Soitec #microelectronics #semiconducto


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Insightful that Terahertz imaging (although active) could be implemented in 65-nm bulk CMOS (so way beyond Ft/Fmax limits) through distributed resistive self-mixing operated in triode mode.
Each pixel incorporating small ring antenna behaving like an elementary magnetic dipole instead of Bessel function radiation pattern given its small size (80um pitch) vs. wavelength.

From ISEN/IEMN Lille Univ., STMicroelectronics Crolles and IHCT Bergische Univ:
#terahertz #terahertzImaging #bessel #selfMixing #RF #NoiseEquivallentPower #antenna #bolometer #NonDestructiveSensing #seeThru #xray #MachineVision #microelectronics #semiconductor


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Quantum radar/illumination (QI) but directly operated in the microwave domain (so without any Electro-Opto-Mechanical converter (EOM)), using a JPV (Josephson Parametric Converter) for signal-idler entanglement and a digital phase-conjugate receiver with M copies of chopped data (500 samples each) for target presence/absence discrimination. QI vs. Classical Illumination (CI) boosting the detection efficiency of low-reflectivity objects in environments with low signal power (e.g. non-invasive biomedical scanning, short-range radar type of apps).

From Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of York and Camerino, INFN and CNR-INO
#quantumIllumination #classcicalIllumination #radar #entanglement


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Quantum radar/illumination (QI) with Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) maintaining high returned signal-idler mode pairs cross-correlation but in low-brightness environments, through initial SPDC (Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion) signals entanglement, compounded with the processing gain of the Many-M mode pairs for sensitive target detection (Hypothesis H1).

From BBN Technologies and California Institute of Technology
#quantumIllumination #classcicalIllumination #radar #spdc #entanglement #microelectronics #semiconductor


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


24/7 multianalyte “Lab-on-a-chip” sensor based on ion-sensitive FETs (in FD-SOI-UTB: Fully-depleted Silicon-On-Insulator with Ultra-Thin-Body) with stacked microfluidics interface (in SU-8 photoresist) to passively pump minute amounts of sweat for analysis through capillary action. Main benefits of this approach being non-invasive and multi-functional diagnosis although not exhaustive, sensing at rest, very small size (~9x9mm), very low-power consumption (20nW per FET), short fluid propagation latency (~1.7s), bio-compatibility and above all CMOS manufacturing compatibility.

From EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
#LabOnAChip #MEMS #sensor #ISFET #SiliconOnInsulator #FDSOI #microfluidic #teleheath #eheath #LiquidUnderTest #IonSensingMembrane #ContinuousHealthMonitoring #semiconductor #microelectronics #soitec


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020



Support of intrinsic neuroplasticity for recurrent spiking neural networks (SNN) by having a hybrid neuron (inc. NVM 1T1R circuitry and based on the leaky-integrate and fire (LIF) model) capable of measuring its own firing rate at regular intervals and adjusting it versus target rate.

From CEA-Leti Grenoble, ETH and Univ. Zurich, Politecnico di Torino and Tours Univ
#EdgeArtificialIntelligence #ArtificialIntelligence #AI #neuralnetwork #spikingneuralnetwork #recurrentneuralnetwork #neuromorphic #OxRAM #neuroplasticity #microelectronics #semiconductor #nanotechnology


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Corner quantum dots in spilt-gate devices with adjustable inter-dot coupling through SOI (Silicon on Insulator) backgate voltage, fast read-out through RF gate reflectometry and further being scalable to n-Qubit register for the joint implementation of CNOT gate and high-fidelity read-out channels.

From Univ. Grenoble, CEA-Inac and CEA-Leti:
#qubit #SiliconQubit #SiliconOnInsulator #RabiFrequency #Zeeman #QuantumDot #CNOT #CoulombBlockade #Pauli #SpinBlockade #Quantum #microelectronics #semiconductor #semiconductors


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Double Quantum Dots (DQD) with different Rashba/Dresselhaus contributions, thus resulting into a different Zeeman energy between the 2 QD’s that will engender a rotation along horizontal axis and so a change of the charge sensor (SET) current when moving back to (2,0)S ground state. This in addition to J energy exchange provide an all-electrical two-axis qubit control inside the Bloch sphere. Possibility also to disable the rotation by adjusting the angle of the applied magnetic field.


From Sandia National Laboratories and Sherbrooke Univ.

qubit SiliconQubit Hamiltonian SiliconOnInsulator Zeeman QuantumDot SpinOrbitCoupling Bloch BlochSphere CryoCMOS microelectronics semiconductor

Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Logical qubit based on two-electron spin sates initialized/read in the (0.2)S charge ground state. Horizontal-axis rotation due to Zeeman energy difference between the two quantum dots (QD) can be compensated if needed through rotation around the vertical-axis by tuning the J exchange interaction. It should then be possible to enhance such logical qubit scheme (described in the below linked paper) as a scalable qubit array in FD-SOI (Fully-Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator): series of Face-to-Face spilt corner gates with inter-dot coupling each mediated by their respective backgate voltage (red arrow). A FD-SOI implementation would further allow to reduce heat dissipation of the surrounding control electronics (cryo-CMOS operation) by adjusting threshold voltage.


Original article from Harvard Univ, Weizmann Institute of Science and Santa Barbara Univ.

qubit SiliconQubit Hamiltonian SiliconOnInsulator Zeeman QuantumDot SpinOrbitCoupling Bloch BlochSphere CryoCMOS microelectronics semiconductor soitec


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Electrically-driven Yagi-Uda antenna operated in the optical instead of RF domain and embedded within an Al2O3 waveguide film for highly-directive inter-chiplet data communications with high bandwidth and small silicon footprint.


From Universität Würzburg

chiplet sip heterogeneousintegration soc semiconductors antenna datacommunication opticalnetwork microelectronics


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020



A secure wake-up radio against Denial of Sleep type of attacks, with no communication overhead and possibility of resynchronization (in case of missed ACK or brute-force attack), by being recursive while including past encrypted message from the main radio into the computation of each wake-up token. Possibility then to use a low-complexity, although not frequency-tunable, super-regenerative receiver with quench generator and cascode RF amplifier to speed up the oscillation envelope growth for bit decision making.


From Grenoble Alpes University and Ghent University

#80211ba #wakeupradio #wireless #radio #denialofservice #superregenerative #bluetooth #lorawan #wifi #halow #zigbee #6lowpan #802154 #wirelesshart #MBAN #WPAN #MICS


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Unsupervised self-learning mode for fully-connected Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) based on stochastic Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) for both Long-Term Potentiation/Depression (LTP/LTD) and built around NVM 1T1R circuitry matrix for the synapse memory elements.


From Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CEA-Leti (D. Garbin's thesis)

EdgeArtificialIntelligence ArtificialIntelligence AI neuralnetwork spikingneuralnetwork neuromorphic OxRAM neuroplasticity STDP LongTermPotentiation ShortTermPotentiation microelectronics semiconductor nanotechnology


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Neuromorphic cells for Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) based on the leaky-integrate and fire (LIF) model and leveraging a distributed architecture by combining NVM RRAM 1T1R circuit with differential pair integrator (co-integrated into BEOL/FEOL semiconductor manufacturing process) for both neurons and synapses. Such distributed architecture improving power efficiency and eliminating memory bottleneck for edge AI devices while reducing silicon footprint as well as better memory cycling endurance.


From CEA-Leti Grenoble, ETH and Univ. Zurich, Politecnico di Torino and Tours Univ.

EdgeArtificialIntelligence ArtificialIntelligence AI neuralnetwork spikingneuralnetwork neuromorphic RRAM FrontEndOfLine BackEndOfLline


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020


Good tutorial on the MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnals Classifier) algo for high-resolution DoA (Direction of Arrival) determination from multi-uncorrelated sources by leveraging the orthogonality between the noise subspace eigenvectors of the array correlation matrix with the array steering vectors while keeping a maximum field of view with an antenna spacing of λ/2.


radar adas autonomouscar beamforming localization RTLS


Pierre Gandolfo, 2020






VGA image sensor with end-of-column Compressive Sensing (CS) and inference done in the CS domain for embedded object recognition with dimensionality reduction of 1/480 and high classification accuracy, thus enabling drastic reduction of memory/processing requirements for edge AI devices with S-sparse signals.


From Univ of Grenoble-Alpes, CEA-Leti and UCLouvain

CompressiveSensing AnalogToInformationSensor EdgeArtificialIntelligence ArtificialIntelligence AI ObjectRecognition SparseSignal ImageSensor CMOSImageSensor CIS sensor CompressedSensing CompressiveSampling SparseSampling



Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


Closed loop control of an AC/AC matrix converter with a PR controller for motor VFD apps in order to mimize the effects of unbalanced input voltages and harmonics while benefiting from bi-directional switching (e.g. GaN-based switches) for 4-quadrant operation, regeneration capabilities, power factor control and no use of bulky DC-link reactive element.


From Louisiana State University

GaN ACAC powerconverter voltagesourceinverter inverter motor matrixconverter spacevector pwm galliumnitride


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


Some technical insights for 3D ToF (Time-of-flight) on how SBI (Suppression of Background Illumination) in every pixel is typically implemented with PMD pixel architecture. Two reverse-biased diodes (charge wells for the collecting of generated charges from incident photons) adjacent to two PG-PMD (Photogate Photonic Mixer Devices) driven in phase opposition and tied to the transmit light modulated signal so that the effect of ambient light get removed by subtracting the outputs of both channels.


Section III of the following paper from Sinhgad College of Engineering for more details.

3dtof timeofflight authentication facerecognition handgesturerecognition depthsensing nir nearinfrared imagesensor 3dcamera


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


Regarding Apple new U1 chip for UWB (ultra-wideband) positioning on the iPhone 11 Pro/Pro Max, will be interesting to see for which application types Apple intends to use it over time (e.g. car/home secure access, asset theft prevention…besides AirDrop file sharing), over which range they intend to operate, and which type of UWB pulse waveform they are using (e.g. IEEE 802.15.4a UWB-IR-like, .15.4f, .15.4z, proprietary) as an attacker could reduce the upper-bound distance if there is any time diversity/processing gain built into their UWB waveform by then exploiting the symbol structure predictability through ED/LC (Early Detect / Late Commit) type of attacks at the physical layer unless some form of random pulse reordering/blinding is applied or then limited to very short-range apps with one pulse per bit.


From ETH Zurich university

uwb ultrawideband apple iphone u1 positioning


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


The use of Hadamard matrix as coding scheme for robust chip-to-chip communication links with wider eye opening (both horizontally and vertically) for a given data rate, reduced EMI/X-talk and lower common-mode noise at receiver end.


chiplet sip heterogeneousintegration soc semiconductors



Pierre Gandolfo, 2019



A rather recent and comprehensive survey of normally-off techniques for GaN-based HEMT (inc. pros/cons of each method) with the exception perhaps of the recessed-gate MIS-HEMT with floating reference connected to source.


powerapps gan matrixconverter induction motor pmsm ledlightingsystems acdc charger amplifier


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


Reprogrammable and always-on sensing at reduced power budget with sensor data classification done in the analog domain.


From West Virginia Univ.

sensor iot wireless fpga ai artificialintelligence edgenetwork


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019





Silicon on Thin Buried Oxide (SOTB) from LEAP/Renesas: Failed to understand what's "new" here since SOITEC and STMicroelectronics with FD-SOI had long demonstrated (since 2002) the interface-coupling effects between front and back channels (fct. of thickness ratio between gate oxide and BOX) and how this could be used to alter not only the threshold voltage but also subthreshold slope and transconductance.


FDSOI soitec iot energyconsumption powermanagement SOI


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019


GaN HEMT benefits nicely illustrated here for this 2kVI vehicle inverter by moving away from the highly power-efficient/ruggetized but extremely complex dual buck inverter topology with MOSFET devices paralleling and additional circuitry for min. of body diodes reverse recovery losses at hard switching events.


gan powermanagement inverter powerapps


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019






A different type of resonant start-up-converter for energy harvesting (cold start) based on a piezoelectric transformer and Armstrong oscillator but not using any biasing inductance (from Univ. Normal Sup Cachan). While not described in their paper, that same silicon-integrable Rosen-type piezo transformer could be further reused for the step-up DC-DC main converter with high power efficiency given its high Q factor and resulting soft switching capabilities


energyharvesting powermanagement microelectronics internetofthings iot wireless


Pierre Gandolfo, 2019






A different radar approach achieving high range resolution without boosted bandwidth by progressively increasing the cross-correlation coherence window length and using regression method to a linear or oscillatory function in order to determine breakpoint (= fixed/moving range target) --> well-suited for densely-populated areas with less interference but at the cost of longer sweep time / duty cycle.


From Univ. Tel Aviv

radar adas autonomouscar drone radiofrequency



Pierre Gandolfo, 2019




Patents - Pierre Gandolfo


FR2.955.991 - Active-Inductor-Oscillator



US8755745B2 - Modular, reconfigurable and cognitive microsystem for the monitoring and remote control of smart communicating objects



US20030224787A1 - System and method of communication between multiple point-corrdinated wireless networks



US 11,068,688 B2 - Multi-Function ultrasonic sensor controller with fingerprint sensing, haptic feedback, movement recognition, 3D positioning and remote power transfer capabilities



US 11,126,995 - Radio frequency-based self-enrolment and data exchange methods for biometric smart cards and non-self-powered authentication devices



Under construction


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